Nursing knowledge—in the form of philosophies of nursing, conceptual models of nursing, and nursing theories—has been developed by nurse scholars who devote much time to observing nursing practice, thinking about what is important to nursing in practice, and then publishing their ideas. Nursing knowledge continues to evolve as nursing students and practicing nurses develop philosophies that articulate their values and use conceptual models and theories to guide their practice. With this, I can craft the nursing care plan to fully meet the needs of my patient. Accepted Philosophies of Nursing
Accepted Philosophies of Nursing
2. Likewise, examining theory is part of the doctoral prepared nurse’s journey into practice. It is all about caring and empathizing for the patient. Although the philosophy may seem solely academic and too cerebral to be of any use, it is vital to approaching your profession in an appropriate manner. Each nursing model and theory provides a holistic orientation that reminds nurses of the focus of the discipline—concern for the “wholeness or health of humans, recognizing that humans are in continuous interaction with their environments” (Donaldson & Crowley, 1978, p. 119). Thus the process of perspective transformation involves the shift from one meaning perspective or frame of reference about nursing and nursing practice to another, from one way “of viewing and being with human beings” to another (Nagle & Mitchell, 1991, p. 22). The novice user of an explicit conceptual model or theory should not become discouraged if initial experiences seem forced or awkward. The new perspective gives rise to fundamental structural changes in the way individuals see themselves and their relationships with others, leading to a reinterpretation of their personal, social, or occupational worlds (p. 112). Various theorists have examined the role of philosophy in nursing practice. Dissonance occurs as the nurse begins to examine his or her current frame of reference for practice in light of the challenge to adopt or change a conceptual model or theory. Adoption of an explicit nursing conceptual model or theory requires restructuring the nurse’s way of thinking about clinical situations and use of a new vocabulary. As is true of most habits, however, it makes decision making less complicated (p. 23). reflect the nurse’s view of nursing practice. It takes empathy for people and upstanding morals and values. Thus the patient always has his or her own nurse, who collaborates with other health professionals when the participant requires services from others. The methodology encompasses nursing practice standards, department and unit objectives, nursing care plans, care maps, patient database and classification tools, flow sheets, Kardex forms, computer information systems, electronic health records, quality assurance tools, nursing job description and performance appraisal tools, and other relevant documents and technologies (Fawcett, 1992; Fitch, Rogers, Ross, et al., 1991; Laurie-Shaw & Ives, 1988; Weiss & Teplick, 1993). They need to be patient, kind, and respectful of others. In this chapter the focus narrows to the process that occurs and the strategies that can be used by each nurse when implementing nursing practice based on explicit nursing conceptual models and theories. However, I will continue to devote myself to learning more about my practice, more about disease, and more about how to help others heal. Philosophy and world view are two terms that have to be understood with precision as there is a difference between them. A philosophy of nursing is a statement, sometimes written, that declares a nurse’s beliefs, values, and ethics regarding their care and treatment of patients while they are in the nursing profession. The second step is to recognize that adoption of an explicit nursing conceptual model or theory—or a change from one explicit conceptual model or theory to another—requires an adjustment in thinking about nursing and patient situations. Although at least one computer software program (Bliss-Holtz, Taylor, & McLaughlin, 1992) and many practice documentation tools (Fawcett & DeSanto-Madeya, 2013; Nelson & Watson, 2012; Watson, 2009; Weiss & Teplick, 1993) have been developed, systematic research to determine the utility of the software and the reliability and validity of the tools is needed. The chapter concludes with a futuristic proposal that links nursingconceptual models with the five types of theories necessary for evidence-based nursing practice. Indeed the topic was the subject of the July debate at the Royal Marsden Hospital in London, which is an indication itself of the interest post-registration nurses working in cancer care have in the subject. PCFs, who are part of a model of patient care also based on Watson’s theoryof human caring, are similar to attending nurses, although their responsibilities are limited to care of hospitalized patients. Their study results revealed statistically significant differences in the dependency, affiliative, aggressive/protective, and achievement subsystems from admission to discharge. The purpose of this chapter is to present a discussion of philosophies, conceptual models of nursing, and nursing theories. Chapter 7 Benner’s Philosophy in Nursing Practice Karen A. Brykczynski A caring, involved stance is the prerequisite for expert, creative problem solving. Rogers (1989) points out that the cognitive and emotional aspects of perspective transformation represent a major change for each nurse. Now we talk of healing your life, healing the environment and healing the planet.” Lynn Keegan, 3) “The character of the nurse is as important as the knowledge she possesses.” Carolyn Jarvis, 4) “Nursing encompasses an art, a humanistic orientation, a feeling for the value of the individual, and an intuitive sense of ethics, and of the appropriateness of action taken.” Myrtle Aydelotte, 5) “I can do no other than to have compassion for all that is called life. nursing world regarding the metaparadigm concepts, Thorne et al. A nurse’s philosophy of nursing will determine what types of models or theories he or she uses, just as the nursing theories used will help develop his or her personal philosophy. What are my responsibilities and commitments to patients, families and communities? They also noted that the literature might “encourage the view that choosing between models is something one does intuitively, as an act of personal preference. This is a promise to themselves and others that they will continue to grow in their profession. shortages of physicians, which preserves their market value (, a “feeling of freedom to critically examine old ways and explore the new [model or theory]” (. Similarly, the nurse could depict his or her view of nursing practice in drawings or collages of photographs. If nursing is to survive as a distinct discipline and profession, that disparity must be eliminated.