[132], Within North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. Highways are a major barrier for dispersal of cougars. Culver et al. Despite its size, it is not typically classified among the "big cats" because it cannot roar, lacking the specialized larynx and hyoid apparatus of Panthera. [66], A 2012 study using 18 motion-sensitive cameras in Río Los Cipreses National Reserve counted a population of two males and two females (one of them with at least two cubs) in an area of 600 km2 (0.63 cougars per 100 km2). Those reported grew to only half the size of the parents. [109], Young adults leave their mother to attempt to establish their own territories at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males tend to leave sooner. [32][31][33][34] Cougar size is smallest close to the equator and larger towards the poles. [110] Research has shown cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as much as 7 (in one study in South America) per 100 km2 (38 sq mi). Marcgrave's rendering was reproduced in 1648 by his associate Willem Piso. [42], Cougar coloring is plain (hence the Latin concolor) but can vary greatly across individuals and even siblings. [136][137], Research on new wildlife collars may be able to reduce human-animal conflicts by predicting when and where predatory animals hunt. [17] [105] Other research suggests a much smaller lower limit of 25 km2 (10 sq mi), but an even greater upper limit of 1300 km2 (500 sq mi) for males. [119][120] In 2003, the documented count for the Florida sub-population was 87 individuals. The North American cougar lives in various places and habitats. [114], Home range sizes and overall cougar abundance depend on terrain, vegetation, and prey abundance. Significant confidence intervals exist with suggested dates. The University of Vermont also uses the mascot, but uses the term "catamount" instead of cougar, as was traditional in the region where the school is located. In particular, the North American cougar is considered to have been mostly extirpated in eastern North America (the population referred to as the eastern cougar) in the beginning of the 20th century, except for the isolated Florida panther subpopulation. [133] Lightly populated New Mexico reported an attack in 2008, the first there since 1974. [92] Nevertheless, there is a measurable effect on the quality of deer populations by puma predation. The average sprinting speed of a cougar is 56 kilometres an hour! [33] Newborn cougars have spots that fade and eventually disappear by the age of 2 1/2 years. There have been unconfirmed sightings in Elliotsville Plantation, Maine (north of Monson) and as early as 1997 in New Hampshire. only cougars/mountain lions, however you wish to call them. For other uses, see. It is also listed on CITES Appendix II. The scat was tested positive as being from a mountain lion. [106] Hunting or relocation of the cougar may increase aggressive encounters by disrupting territories and bringing young, transient animals into conflict with established individuals. [19] If you want to know how to be hotter than Mrs. Robinson or Miranda from The size of the tooth puncture marks also helps distinguish kills made by cougars from those made by smaller predators. Ranges of females may overlap slightly with each other. Being a cougar is all about the attitude -- if you own it, then no one will judge you and you'll be on your way to having a sexual Renaissance. Cougar : définition, synonymes, citations, traduction dans le dictionnaire de la langue française. [a] There were no bite marks on the victim, who had been herding goats. While generally loners, cougars will reciprocally share kills with one another and seem to organize themselves into small communities defined by the territories of dominant males. Many high schools also use the cougar as their sports team mascot. Its range spans 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory in Canada to the southern Andes. [131] By 2004, the count had climbed to 88 attacks and 20 deaths. [87] Although there were no documented cases as of 2012, the invasive Burmese python, which can reach 20 feet in length, has reduced Everglades populations of mammals and could pose a threat to the endangered Florida panther. [35], In Patagonia's Monte León National Park, the local cougar population has specialized on hunting penguins. The coat is variously described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, chestnut or "faded" rosettes. Cougars are known for their large front paws and long tail, which is used for balance and can grow to a length of 90 centimetres. Predation by cougars has been linked to changes in the species mix of deer in a region. Expect her to be physically active as she wants to look good in her trendy, form-fitting clothes (which are usually a bit adventurous for her age). [113] Male ranges may include or overlap with those of females but, at least where studied, not with those of other males, which reduces conflict between cougars. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were remedial hunting of puma the previous year. The cougar cannot be legally killed without a permit in California except under very specific circumstances, such as when a cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety. [62], In Tennessee, no confirmed sightings had been made since the early 1900s. The cougar is an ambush predator that pursues a wide variety of prey. What big cats are there in Oregon? Other species taken include the bighorn and Dall's sheep, horses, fallow deer, caribou, mountain goat, coyote, American badger and pronghorn. [84] Although cougars can kill coyotes, the latter have been documented attempting to prey on cougar cubs. [8][9][10][11] Neck, head, and spinal injuries are common and sometimes fatal. propose the original North American cougar population was extirpated during the Pleistocene extinctions some 10,000 years ago, when other large mammals, such as Smilodon, also disappeared. The paw print of an adult is approximately 10 cm (3.9 in) long. The throat, chest, chin and whiskers are white. Instead, the large feline purrs like a house cat. It is quite rare to see a cougar who is not in shape. [104] In the United States, very large ranges have been reported in Texas and the Black Hills of the northern Great Plains, in excess of 775 km2 (300 sq mi). 30 or when the harvest guideline is reached, whichever occurs first. [39], The cougar is on average larger than all felid species apart from the lion, tiger, and jaguar. [66] Washington state was the site of a fatal attack in 2018, its first since 1924. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. [131] Preceding attacks on humans, cougars display aberrant behavior, such as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. [104] One female adjacent to the San Andres Mountains was found with a large range of 215 km2 (83 sq mi), necessitated by poor prey abundance. Unlike several subordinate predators from other ecosystems, cougars do not appear to take advantage of spatial or temporal refuges to avoid their competitors. [149][150] In Nevada in 1992, cougars were confirmed to have killed nine calves, one horse, four foals, five goats, 318 sheep, and 400 lambs. Only mothers and kittens live in groups, with adults meeting rarely. Averaging between 24 and 28 inches at the shoulder, with the largest males topping 260 pounds, the cougar is bigger, on average, than the African leopard. [129][25], When cougars do attack, they usually employ their characteristic neck bite, attempting to position their teeth between the vertebrae and into the spinal cord. The Royal Canadian Geographical Society family of sites: Canadian Geographic student geography challenge, Help designate an official bird for Canada, Grade 8 students exploring Parks Canada sites, Compare countries' statistics and explore our changing world, Innovative projects in the developing world, The revolution of mapping in the First World War, Canadian pilots heroically earn their wings, Canadian Geographic magazine in french: Géographica, Accessibility Standard for Customer Service Plan. [121] In March 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. One study found that grizzlies and American black bears visited 24% of cougar kills in Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks, usurping 10% of carcasses. [102], Although capable of sprinting, the cougar is typically an ambush predator. [69] Mountain lions are well documented in the state of Wisconsin, with several confirmed sightings with photo and video evidence being as recent as August 13, 2019, with many other sightings earlier that year and during the previous year of 2018. Bears gained up to 113% and cougars lost up to 26% of their respective daily energy requirements from these encounters. The animal is believed to have originated from the Black Hills of South Dakota. She may settle for a less physical, more … As they grow, they begin to go out on forays with their mother, first visiting kill sites, and after six months beginning to hunt small prey on their own. For example, a study in British Columbia observed that the population of mule deer, a favored cougar prey, was declining while the population of the less frequently preyed-upon white-tailed deer was increasing. Canadian Geographic is a magazine of The Royal Canadian Geographical Society. [29][30] Of this length, the tail typically accounts for 63 to 95 cm (25 to 37 in). 3. [25], Between 1890 and 1990, in North America there were 53 reported, confirmed attacks on humans, resulting in 48 nonfatal injuries and 10 deaths of humans (the total is greater than 53 because some attacks had more than one victim). [128], The pertinent North American subspecies is P. concolor couguar. Forensic analysis found specimens of the child's hair and clothing fibers in the animal's stomach. Despite prohibitory signs, coatis are hand-fed by tourists in the park, causing unnatural approximation between cougars and humans. In this area the coatí is the puma's chief prey. Its powerful forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold large prey. Learned, individual prey recognition was observed, as some cougars rarely killed bighorn sheep, while others relied heavily on the species. It has a very muscular body that varies in colour from tawny red to dark brown. Research simulations showed that it faces a low extinction risk in areas, which are larger than 2,200 km2 (850 sq mi). Genetic analysis of cougar mitochondrial DNA indicate that many of these are too similar to be recognized as distinct at a molecular level, but that only six phylogeographic groups exist. [12], In the western United States and Canada, it is also called "mountain lion", a name first used in writing in 1858. By contrast, Penn State University in central Pennsylvania uses the Nittany Lion as its mascot, "Nittany" being the name of a nearby mountain and of the valley in which the University is located, and "lion" being the abbreviated name of a stuffed mountain lion/cougar originally captioned as "Brush Lion" that was on display in a building at the University, and which is today housed in the Penn State All-Sports Museum. [37], Depending on the locality, cougars can be smaller or bigger than jaguars, but are less muscular and not as powerfully built so their weight is on average less. The University of Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania also uses the cougar as its sports mascot and for many other clubs and organizations, but also uses the locally preferred name, "panther", corresponding to nearby geographic features Panther Hollow and Panther Hollow Lake which were named that by 1885, 24 years before the University selected the name for its teams. The term puma is also used in the United States. [64], The cougar's total breeding population is estimated at less than 50,000 by the IUCN, with a declining trend. The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae. The cougar is capable of breaking the neck of some of its smaller prey with a strong bite and momentum bearing the animal to the ground. [1] While specific state and provincial statistics are often available in North America, much less is known about the cat in its southern range. Where a juvenile fails to leave his maternal range, for example, he may be killed by his father. Some instances of surplus killing have resulted in the deaths of 20 sheep in one attack. [73][74], The gray wolf and the cougar compete more directly for prey, mostly in winter. [20] Following this research, the authors of Mammal Species of the World recognized the following six subspecies in 2005:[2], In 2006, the Florida panther was still referred to as a distinct subspecies P. c. coryi in research works. [163] The campus also has a Nittany Lion Shrine featuring a large statue of a mountain lion on campus. Determine the woman’s age. It is native to the Americas. Click here to learn more. On Canada's prairies, Mount Royal University in Calgary and the University of Regina in Saskatchewan use the cougar as their mascot. Game animals and shooting in North America. The Florida panther samples showed a low microsatellite variation, possibly due to inbreeding. A valid big game license, which includes cougar as a species option, is required. Cougars also have similar body types to house cats, only on a larger scale. Attacks are most frequent during late spring and summer, when juvenile cougars leave their mothers and search for new territory. A pumapard is a hybrid animal resulting from a union between a puma and a leopard. [66], Texas is the only U.S. state with a viable cougar population that is not protected. [51] The only unequivocally known eastern population is the critically endangered Florida panther. [1], The cougar is listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. [103], Females reach sexual maturity between one-and-a-half to three years of age. [23] The cougar is generally reported to not be a scavenger, but deer carcasses left exposed for study were scavenged by cougars in California, suggesting more opportunistic behavior. [35], Investigations at Yellowstone National Park showed that elk, followed by mule deer, were the cougar's primary targets; the prey base is shared with the park's gray wolves, with which the cougar competes for resources. The lineages subsequently diverged in that order. Cats within these areas socialize more frequently with each other than with outsiders. [53] Typically, extreme-range sightings of cougars involve young males, which can travel great distances to establish ranges away from established males. Since then there have been at least eight additional confirmed sightings in the state; all were immediately east of the Tennessee River in Middle Tennessee: initially in Humphreys county and on September 4, 2016, further south in Wayne county. Canadian Geographic is a magazine of The Royal Canadian Geographical Society, Species name: Felis concolor (“cat of one colour”)Average weight:60-100 kilograms (male)35-60 kilograms (female)Life expectancy:10-12 years (in the wild)21 years (in captivity). In Florida, it is threatened by heavy traffic, which causes frequent fatal accidents involving cougars. [33] Females are sometimes reported as monogamous,[105] but this is uncertain and polygyny may be more common. Standing still may cause the cougar to consider a person easy prey. [158], In North America, mythological descriptions of the cougar have appeared in the stories of the Hocąk language ("Ho-Chunk" or "Winnebago") of Wisconsin and Illinois[159] and the Cheyenne, amongst others. [63], South of the Rio Grande, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the cat in every Central and South American country. [85], Although it is less specialized than other big cats in predation of crocodilians, a case in Florida was documented in 2008 where a cougar hunted a sub-adult specimen of American alligator 2.69 meters long[86] (the largest registered crocodilian taken by a cougar), which suggests the ability of large cougars to prey on similar sized specimens of the remaining big crocodilian species with which they share habitat in different parts of the Americas (American crocodile, black caiman and Orinoco crocodile). [48] DNA evidence has suggested its presence in eastern North America,[49] while a consolidated map of cougar sightings shows numerous reports from the mid-western Great Plains through to eastern Canada. The cougar is the second-largest cat in the New World after the jaguar. [146] In 2012 a 23-year-old woman was found dead in a mountainous area in Salta Province in northwest Argentina. A cougar can be defined as a woman in her late thirties or forties who is successful, independent, hot, and ready to meet some younger men. Between one and four new individuals entering a population per decade markedly increases persistence, thus highlighting the importance of habitat corridors. They vary in length from 59 – 108 inches with a tail length of 21 – 36 inches, and height from 23 – 28 inches at the shoulder. [160] The Algonquins and Ojibwe believe that the cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a sacred animal among the Cherokee.[161]. Front paw print of a cougar. [108] Juveniles remain with their mothers at least for two years. Six days later, and about 56 km (35 mi) to the southeast, a hair sample was found in Carroll County. The Sacramento Mountain Lions (2010–2012) of the United Football League used the California and southwestern United States regional name of the species. Size and Appearance: The cougar is the largest cat in the genus "felis", and is comparable in size as the leopard. Less than a year later, on March 5, 2009, a cougar was photographed and unsuccessfully tranquilized by state wildlife biologists in a tree near Spooner, Wisconsin, in the northwestern part of the state. [33] Establishing wildlife corridors and protecting sufficient range areas are critical for the sustainability of cougar populations. It has five retractable claws on its forepaws (one a dewclaw) and four on its hind paws. [151] A cougar's killing bite is applied to the back of the neck, head, or throat and the cat inflicts puncture marks with its claws usually seen on the sides and underside of the prey, sometimes also shredding the prey as it holds on. They don't usually attack humans unless they feel cornered or threatened. [35] Cougars appear better than jaguars at exploiting a broader prey niche and smaller prey. [148], During the early years of ranching, cougars were considered on par with wolves in destructiveness. In general, cougars are subordinate to black bears when it comes to kills and when bears are most active, the cats take prey more frequently and spend less time feeding on each kill. In professional hockey, the cougar was used by two mid-western teams and one northwestern team. International Union for Conservation of Nature, urinate on it as a way of marking territory, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, List of fatal cougar attacks in North America, "Use of open, edge and forest areas by pumas Puma concolor in winter: are pumas foraging optimally? Most sports team named the "Wildcats" use a logo similar to a bobcat, or in some cases in Canada, a lynx, names which are often used for sports teams in their own right. There are no jaguars in the area; other felids were too small to kill humans. [145] Another authenticated case occurred In 1997 in Iguazú National Park, northeast Argentina when the 20-month son of a ranger was killed by a female puma. The Inca city of Cusco is reported to have been designed in the shape of a cougar, and the animal also gave its name to both Inca regions and people. Ungulates accounted for only 35% of prey items in one survey, about half that of North America. [164], Large species of the family Felidae native to the Americas, "Mountain lion" redirects here. They are the fourth-largest cat species worldwide;[27] adults stand about 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) tall at the shoulders. The cougar, which is also commonly referred to as a puma, mountain lion or panther, is the second largest cat in North America. [97] A survey of North America research found 68% of prey items were ungulates, especially deer. Its range spans from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes in South America, and is the most widespread of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere. 4. [19][20], Following Linnaeus' first scientific description of the cougar, 32 cougar zoological specimens were described and proposed as subspecies until the late 1980s. [44] A leucistic individual was seen in Serra dos Órgãos National Park in Rio de Janeiro in 2013 when it was recorded by way of a camera trap, indicating that extremely rare, pure white individual cougars do exist in the species. [142][143], An early, authenticated, non-fatal case occurred near Lake Viedma, Patagonia in 1877 when a female mauled the Argentine scientist Francisco P. Moreno; Moreno afterwards showed the scars to Theodore Roosevelt. [18] Although there are no precise ages, the woman is usually 35 years or older with the man more than eight years her junior. Of the large predators in Yellowstone National Park – the grizzly bear, the black bear, the gray wolf, and the cougar – the massive grizzly bear appears dominant, often (but not always) able to drive a gray wolf pack, a black bear, and a cougar off their kills. [106] Copulation is brief but frequent. The Canadian federal agency called Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada rates its current data as "insufficient" to draw conclusions regarding the eastern cougar's survival and its website says that "despite many sightings in the past two decades from eastern Canada, there are insufficient data to evaluate the taxonomy or assign a status to this cougar." [84] Another study on winter kills (November–April) in Alberta showed that ungulates accounted for greater than 99% of the cougar diet. Each additional puma on the landscape increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5%, but each additional animal killed on the landscape during the previous year increased complaints by 50%. Females typically weigh between 29 and 64 kg (64 and 141 lb), averaging 55 kg (121 lb). Like other cats, it is an obligate carnivore, meaning it must feed on meat to survive. A "cougar" is typically defined as an older woman who is primarily attracted to younger men, often involving a sexual relationship.
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